وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And men, when your Master said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.” (2:30)
- az-Zujajj said that this means remember when.
- Rub is mentioned and not Allah. Why? The ayah is about announcing who the vicegerent on Earth will be. It is an ayah of grant, honor, and favor, which are all associated with Rub — the one who sustains, maintains and provides.
- Your master, implies the one most deserving to be the chosen people of Allah are the followers of Prophet SAW.
- Was this announcement made to all the angels? Ibn Abbas said it was only made to those going to Earth. (وفي هؤلاء الملائكة قولان. أحدهما: أنهم جميع الملائكة، قاله السدي عن أشياخه. والثاني: أنهم الذين كانوا مع إبليس حين أُهبط إلى الأرض، ذكره أبو صالح عن ابن عباس.)
- Why inform the angels? To highlight the importance of sharing significant decisions and information. Also it prepares the angels, as they will be in servitude to humans on Earth.
- Particle of emphasis is used, since the angels are going to be surprised by the announcement.
- Didn’t say create but place. Implication: Adam was not created on Earth.
- Placing on Earth implies that Adam will be removed from Jannah.
- The word linguistically means those that succeed one another.
- Why place a vicegerent? Humans are not physically cable of directly receiving revelation.
- A man said to Umar RA: “O vicegerent of Allaah!” He said: “Woe to you, you have gone too far! I was appointed in charge of your affairs and they called me Ameer al-Mu’mineen, so if you call me by this name I will accept that.”
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ نِعْمَ سَحُورُ الْمُؤْمِنِ التَّمْرُ
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Awesome is the meal of dates shortly before dawn for the believer.
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ مَا يَكُونُ مِن نَّجْوَىٰ ثَلَاثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمْ وَلَا خَمْسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُهُمْ وَلَا أَدْنَىٰ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كَانُوا ۖ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
Have you not considered that Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is on the earth? There is in no private conversation of three but that He is the fourth of them, nor are there five but that He is the sixth of them – and no less than that and no more except that He is with them wherever they are. Then He will inform them of what they did, on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed Allah is, of all things, Knowing (58:7).
- Why are three and five chosen and not two? Why is four skipped? The numbers are random to show that it doesn’t matter how many people are present in a conversation, Allah is always present (reflect over how beautifully this point is mentioned by simply saying two ‘random’ numbers).
- What does it mean for Allah to be present? Some incorrectly believe that Allah is everywhere. Instead this ayah begins with knowledge of Allah and ends with the knowledge of Allah i.e. Allah is present with us in His knowledge.
- Where is Allah? He is above His throne in a manner that befits His majesty. There are over a 1,000 proofs for this, the simplest being that the Quran was sent down from the heavens.
- A man used to go around asking the Sahabah, how did Allah ascend on His throne. When he asked Umer RA, he hit him in the head, and then asked if he understood. He said yes, I get it now.
وَفِي السَّمَاءِ رِزْقُكُمْ وَمَا تُوعَدُونَ فَوَرَبِّ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ مِّثْلَ مَا أَنَّكُمْ تَنطِقُونَ
And in the heaven is your provision and whatever you are promised. Then by the Lord of the heaven and earth, indeed, it is truth – just as [sure as] it is that you are speaking. (51:23-24)
- The first ayah speaks about how our provision is in the sky. However, most people are not convinced by this. In the second ayah Allah Subhanahu wa ta’la takes an oath by His lordship that it is the truth, and it is the truth just like we speak.
- What is the relationship between speaking and provision? No one can ever enunciate using another person’s tongue, even if they tried. Likewise, it is impossible for someone to take another person’s provision, no matter how much they try!
Ibn Qudamah said, “the pious predecessor loved that people should point out their errors and mistakes to them.”
“Don’t let difficulties fill you with anxiety. After all, it is only in the darkest nights that the stars shine more brilliant.” Ali ibn Talib
Sufyan at Thawree said: “In our view, a person does not have an understanding of the religion until he thinks of a hardship as a blessing, and comfort and luxury as being a hardship.”
“Verily when Allah withholds, He actually gives, because He does not withhold on account of miserliness or stinginess, but rather He considers the benefit of the servant.” – Sufyan Al-Thawri.