إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ
Indeed, Allah will not change what is with a people until they change what is in themselves (13:11)
- Abu Ishaq al-Huweny HafidhahuAllah says that there are two maa — what — in this ayah.
- The first maa refers to calamities and the second refers to factors that eradicate them.
- Meaning: Allah does not uplift what befell on a people until they remove what was the cause of it within themselves.
وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا
وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُولُو الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا
And do not give the weak-minded your property, which Allah has made a means of sustenance for you, but provide for them within it and clothe them and speak to them words of appropriate kindness (4:3).
And when other relatives and orphans and the needy are present at the time of division, then provide for them from it and speak to them words of appropriate kindness (4:8).
- Both of these verses speak about the division of wealth but the phrases used are different.
- This verse is referring to the wealth of the orphan.
- The use of the preposition fihaa — within it — implies that the guardian should invest the wealth in a safe manner so it increases and does not diminish.
- The second verse is about the time the wealth is distributed.
- In this case, one should take a small amount and give it to those who are visiting (this is done to ward off any evil feelings since they have no share of the inheritance).
- This would lead to a decrease in the wealth and hence the preposition from it is used.
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا
Indeed, those who devour the property of orphans unjustly are verily only consuming into their bellies fire. And they will be burned in a Blaze (4:10).
- This verse is found in Surah an-Nisaaa. The central theme of this chapter is the rights of people.
- The chapter begins with the rights of the weakest in society: female orphans.
- The discussion ends with the above warning.
- This is the fifth time in ten verses that this phrase is repeated. This is to emphasize that the wealth belongs to the orphans and the guardians have no share in it, whatsoever.
- This implies that eating the wealth of the orphan is of two types: unjustly and justly (later applies to someone who is poor as stated in verse six).
- The fire of Hell is in the indefinite article for aggrandizement, and to horrify and scare those that unjustly eat the wealth of orphans.
- What does it mean to eat the fire? It could mean that it is a means of entering the fire. It could be literal in that the person in their grave, the Day of Judgement or in hellfire will eat the fire.
- More probably, it is metaphorical implying that whatever is eaten will be destroyed and devoid of any barakah.
- The general principle of wealth being devoid of barakah and slowly disintegrating applies to all wealth earned through impermissible means.
A man with Yahyā b. Mu’ādh رَحِمَهُ الله recited the verse: “And speak to him [i.e. Phir’oan] with gentle speech.” Yahyā cried and said, “My Lord, this is Your gentleness with who says I am your God [i.e. Phir’oan], then how will be Your gentleness with who says You are God.” (Tafsīr al-Baghawī)
كان مالك بن دينار يقول : والله لو استطعت أن لا أنام ما نمت، فقيل : لماذا يا أبا يحيى، قال : أخشى أن يأتيني ملك الموت وأنا نائم ولا أريد أن يأتيني إلا وأنا على عمل صالح
Malik ibn Dinar used to say, “if by Allah, I was able, I would not sleep.” When asked why, he said, “I fear that the angel of death would come to me while I am a sleep and I do not want him to come except that I am doing a good deed.”
قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Say, [O Muhammad], “If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (3:31).
- as-Sa’di rahimahuAllah said, “this ayah mentions the obligation of loving Allah, its sign, affect and benefit.”
- The sign of loving Allah is following Prophet Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa salam.
- The focus of many Muslims has become only on loving Prophet SAW. Allah SWT did not tell us in this ayah to love him. Claiming to love Prophet SAW is very easy. True love is expressed by ones eagerness to follow his sunnah and by not inventing ways of expressing that love.
- Other benefit: Love of Allah is not immediately attained. Rather it has steps and stages, the first of which is following Prophet SAW.
- The affect of loving Allah is that Allah will love you.
- The benefit derived is that ones sins will be forgiven.
قال إبن القيم: لا تبحث عن قيمتك في أعين الناس ابحث عنها في ضميرك فإذا ارتاح الضمير ارتفع المقام وإذا عرفت نفسك فلا يضرك ماقيل فيك.
Ibn al-Qayyim RahimahuAllah said, “do not look for your worth in the eyes of people; look for it within your self. If your conscious is at peace then you will ascend high, and if you truly know yourself then what is said about you will not harm you.”