وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And men, when your Master said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.” (2:30)
- az-Zujajj said that this means remember when.
- Rub is mentioned and not Allah. Why? The ayah is about announcing who will be the vicegerent on Earth. It is an ayah of grant, honor, and favor, which are all associated with Rub — the one who sustains, maintains and provides.
- Your master, implies the one most deserving to be the chosen people of Allah are the followers of Prophet SAW.
- Was this announcement made to all the angels? Ibn Abbas said it was only made to those going to Earth. (وفي هؤلاء الملائكة قولان. أحدهما: أنهم جميع الملائكة، قاله السدي عن أشياخه. والثاني: أنهم الذين كانوا مع إبليس حين أُهبط إلى الأرض، ذكره أبو صالح عن ابن عباس.)
- Why inform the angels? To highlight the importance of sharing significant decisions and information. Also it prepares the angels, as they will be in servitude to humans on Earth.
- Particle of emphasis is used, since the angels are going to be surprised by the announcement.
- Didn’t say create but place. Implication: Adam was not created on Earth.
- Placing on Earth implies that Adam will be removed from Jannah.
- The word linguistically means those that succeed one another.
- Why place a vicegerent? Humans are not physically cable of directly receiving revelation.
- A man said to Umar RA: “O vicegerent of Allaah!” He said: “Woe to you, you have gone too far! I was appointed in charge of your affairs and they called me Ameer al-Mu’mineen, so if you call me by this name I will accept that.”